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旱作条件下不同施肥类型和覆膜材料对冀西北马铃薯光合效应、产量和品质的影响
Effects of Different Fertilization Types and Mulching Materials on Photosynthesis, Yield and Quality of Potatoes in Northwest Hebei Under Dry Farming Conditions
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  马铃薯  施肥  覆膜  产量  品质
英文关键词:Potatoes  Fertilization  Mulching-film  Yield  Quality
基金项目:河北省重点研发计划项目“抗旱马铃薯优异种质资源创制与新品种培育”(21326320D-2);农业农村部“国家马铃薯产业技术体系张家口综合试验站”(CARS-09-ES01);河北省现代农业产业技术体系薯类产业创新团队首席专家(HBCT2023060101); 河北省现代农业产业技术体系薯类产业创新团队马铃薯品种筛选与繁育岗位(HBCT2023060206);河北省农业科技成果转化资金项目,高产优质多抗型马铃薯新品种“京张薯3号”的中试与示范(V1643101537374)。
作者单位
方爱国,籍立杰,赵 冀,张耀辉,张瑞玖,马 恢 (河北省张家口市农业科学院河北 张家口 075000) 
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中文摘要:
      为探究适应冀西北地区旱作马铃薯高产高质的栽培技术,本试验以马铃薯品种京张薯3号为试验材料,研究了在旱作雨养条件下,不同覆膜材料和增施有机肥对旱作马铃薯植株形态、光合效应、产量和品质的影响。试验结果表明:与对照相比,覆膜和增施有机肥处理FOB和FOS可以提高马铃薯出苗率,缩短出苗天数,增加植株株高和茎粗。FOS、FOB和FOW处理在马铃薯块茎形成期、块茎膨大期、淀粉积累期三个时期,显著提高了马铃薯净光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率。从产量和产量构成因素看,FOS和FOB处理单株结薯数比对照分别增加37.9%和25.2%,单株结薯重提高38.1%和33.7%,折合667 m2产量比对照提高31.29%和27.82%。FOS处理马铃薯淀粉含量比对照显著提高21.8%。综合各项指标,对于冀西北坝上地区,增施有机肥+渗水降解地膜是有效的旱作栽培措施。
英文摘要:
      To explore the cultivation techniques for achieving high yield and quality of potatoes in Northwest Hebei, ‘ Jingzhangshu 3 ’ potato was used as an experiment material.We investigated effects of different plastic mulching materials and increased application of organic fertilizer on growth, photosynthetic characteristics, yield and quality of potato under the natural precipitation conditions.The results showed that the treatment involving FOB and FOS with mulching and increasing organic fertilizer improved the potato germination rate, shortened the number of seedling days, and significantly increased plant height and stem thickness compared to the control. During the potato tuber-formation, tuber-expansion and starch-accumulation periods, the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of potatoes in the FOS,FOB and FOW treatments were significantly improved. From yield and yield composition perspective, the tubers number per plant increased by 37.9% and 25.2%, respectively, the tubers weight per plant of FOS and FOB treatments increased by 38.1% and 33.7%, and the yields of FOS and FOB treatments increased by 31.29% and 27.82% compared to the control. The starch content of the FOS treatment significantly increased by 21.8% compared to the control. Based on various indicators, for dry areas of Northwest Hebei province,increasing the application of organic fertilizer + water infiltration to degrade mulching film is an effective method for dry farming.
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