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玉米与大豆间作对干物质累积分配、产量相对竞争及土地当量比的影响
Effect of Maize and Soybean Intercropping on Dry Matter Accumulation, Yield Competition and Land Equivalent Ratio
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  玉米  大豆  间作  干物质累积分配  相对竞争力  土地当量比
英文关键词:Maize  Soybean  Intercropping  Dry matter accumulation and distribution  Relative competition  Land equivalent ratio
基金项目:河南省科技攻关项目(242102111168);河南省玉米产业技术体系驻马店综合试验站项目(HARS-22-02-Z6)。
作者单位
许 波 ,许海涛,冯晓曦,郭海斌,张军刚,王友华,孔子明 (1.驻马店市农业科学院河南 驻马店 463000
2.驻马店市遂平县农业农村局河南 遂平 463100) 
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中文摘要:
      为充分利用光热水肥土资源,间作是提高单位土地面积生产力、作物产量和经济效益的一种重要种植方式。设置了玉米与大豆间作行比M4S6(4∶6)、M2S4(2∶4)、M4S4(4∶4),玉米单作(MCK)与大豆单作(SCK)5种种植模式,研究了玉米与大豆间作对干物质累积分配、产量相对竞争及土地当量比的影响。结果表明:不同生育时期间作处理玉米干物质累积均大于单作玉米,M4S6、M2S4大豆干物质累积高于单作大豆。间作处理营养干物质输出量均大于单作,玉米与大豆间作处理显著增加了营养干物质的输出量,呈现处理M2S4>M4S6>M4S4>CK,玉米与大豆间作其输出率低于贡献率,间作玉米的输出率低于大豆,而贡献率显著高于大豆。玉米间作处理雌穗分配比重显著大于单作处理,处理M4S6显著提高雌穗干物质分配比重,结荚期间作处理大豆干物质向豆荚分配比重低于单作处理,成熟期豆荚干物质分配比重显著升高,处理M4S6豆荚干物质分配比重最大。处理M2S4、M4S6、M4S4玉米产量分别为单作玉米MCK的70.81%、84.58%、66.33%,大豆产量分别为单作大豆SCK的9.89%、17.97%、14.18%,处理M4S4产量相对竞争优势极强,处理M4S6、M2S4比M4S4竞争优势显著减弱,处理M4S6、M2S4、M4S4的产量土地当量比LER均大于1,处理M4S6产量土地当量比最大,其次是M2S4,处理M4S6、M2S4比M4S4产量土地当量比分别增加了19.42%、12.62%。处理M4S6、M2S4经济效益比单作玉米MCK分别增加了19.41%、15.75%,比单作大豆分别增加了113.01%、106.47%。整体上,相较其它间作处理,M4S6是最有益于挖掘玉米与大豆间作优势,提高土地生产力的间作模式。
英文摘要:
      Intercropping is an important method for maximizing solar, thermal and land resources to enhance land productivity, crop yield and economic benefits.This study investigated five maize and soybean intercropping models ( M4S6 (4∶6), M2S4 (2∶4),M4S4 (4∶4), maize monocropping (MCK) and soybean monocropping (SCK)),to assess their effects on dry matter accumulation and distribution, yield competition, and land equivalent ratio (LER).The results showed that the intercropped maize exhibited higher dry matter accumulation compared to monocropped maize across different growth stages, and the soybean dry matter accumulation was higher in M4S6 and M2S4 intercropping models than in monocropped soybeans.The nutrient dry matter remobilization of intercropping treatment was greater than that of monocropping.Maize and soybean intercropping significantly increased the nutrient dry matter remobilization, with treatment M2S4>M4S6>M4S4>CK.However, the remobilization efficiency of maize and soybean intercropping treatment was lower than that of the conversion rate, the maize’s remobilization efficiency was lower than that of soybean’s, althrough its conversion rate was significantly higher. In intercropping treatments, a higher proportion of dry matter was distributed to maize ear compared to monoculture.Treatment M4S6 showed a particularly significant increase in ear dry matter distribution. Conversely, during pod-setting,the proportion of dry matter distribution to the pods of soybean was lower in intercropping than in monoculture. but significantly increased at maturity, expecially in treatment M4S6,.which exhibited the highest distribution proportion to pods.The yield of M2S4, M4S6 and M4S4 was 70.81%, 84.58% and 66.33% of monocropping maize (MCK),respectively.For soybean, the yield of M2S4, M4S6 and M4S4 was 9.89%, 17.97% and 14.18% of monocropping soybean (SCK), respectively.The yield relative competition of M4S4 was extremely competitive, while that of M4S6 and M2S4 was significantly lower compared to M4S4.The yield land equivalent ratio of M4S6, M2S4 and M4S4 was greater than 1, with M4S6 having the the highest LER, followed by M2S4. Compared with M4S4, M4S6,M2S4 increased the LER by 19.42% and 12.62% , respectively.The economic benefits increased by 19.41% and 15.75% compared with MCK, and ,by 113.01% and 106.47% compared to monocropping soybean.Overall,compared with other intercropping treatments, M4S6 is the most beneficial intercropping pattern for exploiting thing advantages of maize and soybean intercropping and improving land productivity.
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